Countries around the world have collaborated in the fight against corruption. One of the significant milestones is the establishment of Transparency International (TI) – an international non-profit, non-partisan agency supported by the World Bank, governments and multinational organizations. TI’s primary objectives are: (1) to put corruption issue on the global agenda, (2) to play a major role in the creation of anti-corruption conventions, and 3) to raise public sector standards in solving corruption issues. In 1995, TI introduced the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) as an indicator of the perceived levels of corruption in each country. The assessment has been conducted annually since then.
On legal framework initiative, the United Nations held a meeting at the headquarters of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to discuss possibilities of using legal tools to tackle corruption. In 2003, the General Assembly adopted the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and appointed the UNODC as the UNCAC Secretary. In addition, December 9 was officially designated as the International Anti-Corruption Day to raise the global awareness of corruption and the roles of the UNCAC in combating and preventing it. The UNCAC requires that member countries promulgate laws for the prevention of corruption, including infliction and cooperation for international legal framework and law enforcement. The court’s cooperation for inspection of assets and information exchange is also requested to support effective combat against corruption.
In Thailand, many agencies have been established to prevent and combat against corruption, for example, the Office of the National Anti-Corruption Commission (ONAC), the Office of the Public Sector Anti-Corruption Commission (PACC), the Anti-Money Laundering Office (AMLO), and the Office of the Auditor General of Thailand. While relevant laws and regulations on punishment of corruption are enforced, cooperation among private sectors is also essential for solving the issue. The leading alliance is the Private Sector Collective Action Coalition Against Corruption (CAC), which is endorsed by the Government and the Office of the National Anti-Corruption Commission (ONAC), and operated by seven leading organizations – (1) the Thai Institute of Directors, (2) the Thai Chamber of Commerce, (3) the International Chamber of Commerce, (4) the Thai Listed Companies Association, (5) the Thai Bankers Association, (6) the Federation of Thai Capital Market Organization, and (7) the Federation of Thai Industries.